Excess hours worked cancel out holiday entitlement

‘Always on’ managers now work 29 extra days a year

Embargoed 00:01am, 12 January 2016

Managers are working longer than ever, and suffering rising levels of stress according to the latest Quality of Working Life study from the Chartered Management Institute (CMI).

Of the 1,574 managers surveyed for the report, the majority (77%) work for at least an additional hour each day, adding up to an extra 29 days over the course of a year.  With average holiday entitlement only 28 days, this extra time cancels out managers’ annual leave. Up to 10% put in more than three extra hours each day, the equivalent of working a 15-month year.

CMI’s long-established report, carried out with Sir Professor Cary Cooper and Professor Les Worrall, has catalogued the changing face of working life in the UK since 1997. It reveals that since the recession the proportion of managers working over their contracted hours has risen steadily, reaching 92% in 2015. Not surprisingly, those working long hours are more than three times as likely to report they feel stressed than those working no additional hours. 54% of managers agree that long working hours are leading to elevated levels of stress.

61% of managers blame technology for their increased hours as they find it harder to switch off, with one in five managers reporting that they are ‘always on’ and check emails all the time. Those struggling to switch off report lower personal productivity levels and experience more stress.

The report shows that by eating into the time available to relax, exercise and socialise, long-hours prevent managers being able to unwind. Managers surveyed for the study report a link between working longer hours and suffering from increased headaches, irritability and insomnia, early symptoms of mental health problems and potential burn out.

Effective management is found to be a key factor in handling stress in the work place. The worst management styles are shown to generate up to four times more stress than the best: 28% of those reporting that their line managers are “secretive” or “suspicious” feel stressed, compared to just 7% of those who believe their managers empower them to take their own decisions. Innovative, entrepreneurial and empowering management styles were found to drive job satisfaction levels up to 2.5 times higher than ‘command and control’ styles.

Ann Francke, CEO of CMI, commented:

“There’s nothing wrong with hard graft, but only if you’re well supported. Accidental managers who lack the professional skills to deal with the causes of burnout are a threat to their health and others’ at work. Productivity will also continue to suffer unless employers train their managers to prevent overwork and strike the necessary work/life balance.”

In addition to poor line management, the report finds that mobile technology raises stress levels, with 61% stating that mobile technology makes it hard to switch off from work. Over half of managers (54%) frequently check their emails outside normal working hours, with 21% checking it ‘all the time’. A significant minority (39%) want their organisation to restrict out-of-hours access to email systems to provide a chance to escape the pressures of work.

Francke continues:

“Most of us are comfortable with the idea that a modern workplace requires us to occasionally pitch in out of hours. But the ‘always on’ culture must be switched off, with line managers encouraged to support an ‘always willing’ mindset that reflects the give and take necessary for a higher quality of working life.”

Despite the rise in hours, managers’ job satisfaction is on the up. Two-thirds (67%) of managers are currently satisfied with their jobs, a rise of 12% on 2012, and higher than the 62% recorded in 2007 before the financial crash. Positive feelings are associated with trust in their line manager (79%), a belief in their organisation’s values (64%) and a feeling of fair treatment by their employer (61%).

Sir Cary Cooper CBE, Professor of Organisational Psychology and Health at Manchester Business School, has led CMI’s research into the quality of working life over the last seven years. He commented:

“Businesses should be on alert for signs of burnout. Stress is a natural reaction to challenging conditions, and while it can raise motivation and help individuals meet deadlines in the short-term over longer periods is extremely damaging. Festering resentment at our long-hours culture risks boiling over and hurting UK productivity. Striking the right balance is crucial, requiring managers to act equitably and with empathy.”

Download the report: www.managers.org.uk/qualityofworkinglife

CMI’s recommendations for improving the quality of working life include:

  • Improve the ability to manage change – 97% of managers report some degree of organisational change, yet just a fifth see a connection with improved decision making. Focusing on behaviours and measuring the impacts of change are crucial in tackling this leading cause of stress.
  • Develop better line managers – Line managers have a critical role to play in driving employee engagement. More open, empowering management styles are connected with lower levels of stress, higher job satisfaction and greater personal productivity
  • Switch off – Avoiding digital presenteeism means giving colleagues the license to switch off. Colleagues can often be their own worst enemies, and while personal choice is key, options such as restricting remote access should be considered.
  • Empower your people – The most power drivers of job satisfaction are a personal sense of achievement. Where innovative, entrepreneurial and empowering management styles are found, more than 84% of managers are satisfied with their jobs.
  • Improve well-being -  People are not assets to be driven to destruction, it is important to monitor metrics such as morale and illness to identify destructive habits.

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Further information:

For further information, interviews or case studies please contact:

Notes to editors

Case studies of businesses using innovative ways to improve the quality of working life of their employees can be provided:


Building a caring company

Evan Davidge, Head of Reward, Arup

Imperial College London

Creating a culture shift

Leyla Okhai, Head of Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, Imperial College London


Headhunters with a passion for the gym

Katy Garnell, HR & Operations Manager, Loopdynamic

Sunderland City Council

How to be successful in times of great change

John Rawling, Deputy Director of Human Resources & Organisational Development, Sunderland City Council


Employee empowerment is key

Diane Foster, HR Director, Flamingo

About CMI

  • The Chartered Management Institute (CMI) is the only chartered professional body for management and leadership, dedicated to improving managers’ skills and growing the number of qualified managers.
  • Our professional management qualifications span GCSE to PhD equivalent levels, including the unique Chartered Manager award, which increases earnings potential and improves workplace performance.
  • We provide employers and individual managers with access to the latest management thinking and with practical online support which helps them embrace change, create high performing teams and keep ahead of the curve.
  • With a member community of 120,000+ managers and leaders, we promote high standards of ethical practice through our Professional Code of Conduct, and help managers build their expertise through online networks, regional events and mentoring opportunities.
  • Visit www.managers.org.uk for more information, or follow us @cmi_managers