Leadership and managerial practices evolved alongside human civilization; as people started living in groups and formed organisations, they created specific goals for the benefit of members and society, and leaders encouraged them forwards.
The classical theories such as Bureaucracy organizations (Weber), Administrative Management Theory (Fayol), and Scientific Management (Taylor) provided the building blocks for organisational management that include: division of work, specialisation, hierarchical organisation structure with authority, responsibility, and unity of direction and command. While global managerial practices have developed these principles over the past century, the advancement of cyber technology as well as the Covid-19 disruptions have changed the managerial paradigm for modern organizations. Managers need to sync their leadership and business strategy with the disruptions (Fuller & Theofilou, 2021).
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